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The sixth-grade student will be an active participant in classroom discussions. The student will present personal opinions, understand differing viewpoints, distinguish between fact and opinion, and analyze the effectiveness of group communication. The student will begin the study of word origins and continue vocabulary development. The student will read independently a variety of fiction and nonfiction, including a significant number of classic works, for appreciation and comprehension. The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit narratives, descriptions, and explanations, with attention to composition and style as well as sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. The student will also demonstrate correct use of language, spelling, and mechanics by applying grammatical conventions in writing and speaking. In addition, reading and writing will be used as tools for learning academic concepts, and available technology will be used as appropriate.
Oral Language
6.1 The student will analyze oral participation in small-group activities.
Communicate as leader and contributor.
Evaluate own contributions to discussions.
Summarize and evaluate group activities.
Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.
6.2 The student will listen critically and express opinions in oral presentations.
Distinguish between fact and opinion.
Compare and contrast viewpoints.
Present a convincing argument.
Paraphrase what is heard.
Summarize what is heard.
Use grammatically correct language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
Reading
6.3 The student will read and learn the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases.
Identify word origins, derivations, and inflections.
Identify analogies and figurative language.
Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.
Use word-reference materials.
6.4 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.
Identify the elements of narrative structure, including setting, character, plot, conflict, and theme.
Use knowledge of narrative and poetic structures to aid comprehension and predict outcomes.
Describe the images created by language.
Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the meaning of a text.
Describe cause-effect relationships and their impact on plot.
Use information stated explicitly in the text to draw conclusions and make inferences.
Explain how character and plot development are used in a selection to support a central conflict or story line.
Paraphrase and summarize the main points in the text.
6.5 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of informational selections.
Identify questions to be answered.
Make, confirm, or revise predictions.
Use context to determine meanings of unfamiliar words and technical vocabulary.
Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information.
Organize the main idea and details to form a summary.
Compare and contrast information about one topic contained in different selections.
Select informational sources appropriate for a given purpose.
Writing
6.6 The student will write narratives, descriptions, and explanations.
Use a variety of planning strategies to generate and organize ideas.
Establish central idea, organization, elaboration, and unity.
Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.
Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.
Revise writing for clarity.
6.7 The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure.
Use a variety of graphic organizers, including sentence diagrams, to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph structure.
Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.
Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.
Maintain consistent tense inflections across paragraphs.
Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Use correct spelling for frequently used words.
GRADE 6: Mathematics
The sixth-grade standards place continued emphasis on the study of whole numbers, decimals, and rational numbers (fractions). Students will use ratios to compare data sets; make conversions within a given measurement system; classify three-dimensional figures; collect, analyze, display, and interpret data, using a variety of graphical and statistical methods; begin using integers and percents; find the probability of an event; and investigate numerical and geometric patterns. Students will be introduced to algebraic terms and solving algebraic equations in one variable.
While learning mathematics, students will be actively engaged, using concrete materials and appropriate technologies such as fraction calculators, computers, spreadsheets, laser discs, and videos. However, facility in the use of technology shall not be regarded as a substitute for a students understanding of quantitative concepts and relationships or for proficiency in basic computations. Students will also identify real-life applications of the mathematical principles they are learning and apply these to science and other disciplines they are studying.
Mathematics has its own language, and the acquisition of specialized vocabulary and language patterns is crucial to a students understanding and appreciation of the subject. Students should be encouraged to use correctly the concepts, skills, symbols, and vocabulary identified in the following set of standards.
Problem solving has been integrated throughout the six content strands. The development of problem-solving skills should be a major goal of the mathematics program at every grade level. Instruction in the process of problem solving will need to be integrated early and continuously into each students mathematics education. Students must be helped to develop a wide range of skills and strategies for solving a variety of problem types.
Number and Number Sense
6.1 The student will identify representations of a given percent and describe orally and in writing the equivalence relationships among fractions, decimals, and percents.
6.2 The student will describe and compare two sets of data, using ratios, and will use appropriate notations, such as a/b, a to b, and a:b.
6.3 The student will
a) find common multiples and factors, including least common multiple and greatest common factor;
b) identify and describe prime and composite numbers; and identify and describe the characteristics of even and odd integers.
6.4 The student will compare and order whole numbers, fractions, and decimals, using concrete materials, drawings or pictures, and mathematical symbols.
6.5 The student will identify, represent, order, and compare integers.
Computation and Estimation
6.6 The student will
a) solve problems that involve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and/or division with fractions and mixed numbers, with and without regrouping, that include like and unlike denominators of 12 or less, and express their answers in simplest form; and
b) find the quotient, given a dividend expressed as a decimal through thousandths and a divisor expressed as a decimal to thousandths with exactly one non-zero digit.
6.7 The student will use estimation strategies to solve multistep practical problems involving whole numbers, decimals, and fractions (rational numbers).
6.8 The student will solve multistep consumer-application problems involving fractions and decimals and present data and conclusions in paragraphs, tables, or graphs. Planning a budget will be included.
Measurement
6.9 The student will compare and convert units of measure for length, area, weight/mass, and volume within the U.S. Customary system and the metric system and estimate conversions between units in each system:
a) length part of an inch (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8), inches, feet, yards, miles, millimeters, centimeters, meters, and kilometers;
b) weight/mass ounces, pounds, tons, grams, and kilograms;
c) liquid volume cups, pints, quarts, gallons, milliliters, and liters; and
d) area square units. *
* The intent of this standard is for students to make ballpark comparisons and not to memorize conversion factors between U.S. Customary and metric units.
6.10 The student will estimate and then determine length, weight/mass, area, and liquid volume/capacity, using standard and nonstandard units of measure.
6.11 The student will determine if a problem situation involving polygons of four or fewer sides represents the application of perimeter or area and apply the appropriate formula.
6.12 The student will
a) solve problems involving the circumference and/or area of a circle when given the diameter or radius; and
b) derive approximations for pi (() from measurements for circumference and diameter, using concrete materials or computer models.
6.13 The student will
a) estimate angle measures, using 45, 90, and 180 as referents, and use the appropriate tools to measure the given angles; and
b) measure and draw right, acute, and obtuse angles and triangles.
Geometry
6.14 The student will identify, classify, and describe the characteristics of plane figures, describing their similarities, differences, and defining properties.
6.15 The student will determine congruence of segments, angles, and polygons by direct comparison, given their attributes. Examples of noncongruent and congruent figures will be included.
6.16 The student will construct the perpendicular bisector of a line segment and an angle bisector.
6.17 The student will sketch, construct models of, and classify solid figures (rectangular prism, cone, cylinder, and pyramid).
Probability and Statistics
6.18 The student, given a problem situation, will collect, analyze, display, and interpret data in a variety of graphical methods, including
a) line, bar, and circle graphs;
b) stem-and-leaf plots; and
c) box-and-whisker plots.
Circle graphs will be limited to halves, fourths, and eighths.
6.19 The student will describe the mean, median, and mode as measures of central tendency, describe the range, and determine their meaning for a set of data.
6.20 The student will
a) make a sample space for selected experiments and represent it in the form of a list, chart, picture, or tree diagram; and
b) determine and interpret the probability of an event occurring from a given sample space and represent the probability as a ratio, decimal or percent, as appropriate for the given situation.
Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
6.21 The student will investigate, describe, and extend numerical and geometric patterns, including triangular numbers, patterns formed by powers of 10, and arithmetic sequences.
6.22 The student will investigate and describe concepts of positive exponents, perfect squares, square roots, and, for numbers greater than 10, scientific notation. Calculators will be used to develop exponential patterns.
6.23 The student will
a) model and solve algebraic equations, using concrete materials;
b) solve one-step linear equations in one variable, involving whole number coefficients and positive rational solutions; and
c) use the following algebraic terms appropriately: variable, coefficient, term, and equation.
GRADE 6: SCIENCE
The sixth-grade standards continue to emphasize data analysis and experimentation. Methods are studied for testing the validity of predictions and conclusions. Scientific methodology, focusing on precision in stating hypotheses and defining dependent and independent variables, is strongly reinforced. The concept of change is explored through the study of transformations of energy and matter. The standards present an integrated focus on the role of the suns energy in the Earths systems, on water in the environment, on air and atmosphere, and on basic chemistry concepts. A more detailed understanding of the solar system and space exploration becomes a focus of instruction. Natural resource management, its relation to public policy, and cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies are introduced.
The sixth-grade standards continue to focus on student growth in understanding the nature of science. This scientific view defines the idea that explanations of nature are developed and tested using observation, experimentation, models, evidence, and systematic processes. The nature of science includes the concepts that scientific explanations are based on logical thinking; are subject to rules of evidence; are consistent with observational, inferential, and experimental evidence; are open to rational critique; and are subject to refinement and change with the addition of new scientific evidence. The nature of science includes the concept that science can provide explanations about nature, can predict potential consequences of actions, but cannot be used to answer all questions.
Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic
6.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;
a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;
precise and approximate measurements are recorded;
scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;
hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables;
a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;
one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;
data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using appropriate metric measurements;
data are organized and communicated through graphical representation (graphs, charts, and diagrams);
models are designed to explain a sequence; and
an understanding of the nature of science is developed and reinforced.
Force, Motion, and Energy
6.2 The student will investigate and understand basic sources of energy, their origins, transformations, and uses. Key concepts include
potential and kinetic energy;
the role of the sun in the formation of most energy sources on Earth;
nonrenewable energy sources (fossil fuels including petroleum, natural gas, and coal);
renewable energy sources (wood, wind, hydro, geothermal, tidal, and solar); and
energy transformations (heat/light to mechanical, chemical, and electrical energy).
6.3 The student will investigate and understand the role of solar energy in driving most natural processes within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and on the Earths surface. Key concepts include
the Earths energy budget;
the role of radiation and convection in the distribution of energy;
the motion of the atmosphere and the oceans;
cloud formation; and
the role of heat energy in weather-related phenomena including thunderstorms and hurricanes.
Matter
6.4 The student will investigate and understand that all matter is made up of atoms. Key concepts include
atoms are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons;
atoms of any element are alike but are different from atoms of other elements;
elements may be represented by chemical symbols;
two or more atoms may be chemically combined;
compounds may be represented by chemical formulas;
chemical equations can be used to model chemical changes; and
a limited number of elements comprise the largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere.
6.5 The student will investigate and understand the unique properties and characteristics of water and its roles in the natural and human-made environment. Key concepts include
water as the universal solvent;
the properties of water in all three states;
the action of water in physical and chemical weathering;
the ability of large bodies of water to store heat and moderate climate;
the origin and occurrence of water on Earth;
the importance of water for agriculture, power generation, and public health; and
the importance of protecting and maintaining water resources.
6.6 The student will investigate and understand the properties of air and the structure and dynamics of the Earths atmosphere. Key concepts include
air as a mixture of gaseous elements and compounds;
air pressure, temperature, and humidity;
how the atmosphere changes with altitude;
natural and human-caused changes to the atmosphere;
the relationship of atmospheric measures and weather conditions;
basic information from weather maps including fronts, systems, and basic measurements; and
the importance of protecting and maintaining air quality.
Living Systems
6.7 The student will investigate and understand the natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems. Key concepts include
the health of ecosystems and the abiotic factors of a watershed;
the location and structure of Virginias regional watershed systems;
divides, tributaries, river systems, and river and stream processes;
wetlands;
estuaries;
major conservation, health, and safety issues associated with watersheds; and
water monitoring and analysis using field equipment including hand-held technology.
Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
6.8 The student will investigate and understand the organization of the solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it. Key concepts include
the sun, moon, Earth, other planets and their moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets;
relative size of and distance between planets;
the role of gravity;
revolution and rotation;
the mechanics of day and night and the phases of the moon;
the unique properties of Earth as a planet;
the relationship of the Earths tilt and the seasons;
the cause of tides; and
the history and technology of space exploration.
Resources
6.9 The student will investigate and understand public policy decisions relating to the environment. Key concepts include
management of renewable resources (water, air, soil, plant life, animal life);
management of nonrenewable resources (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, mineral resources);
the mitigation of land-use and environmental hazards through preventive measures; and
cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies.
GRADE 6: SOCIAL STUDIES
United States History: 1877 to the Present
Students will continue to use skills of historical and geographical analysis as they examine American history since 1877. The standards for this course relate to the history of the United States from the end of the Reconstruction era to the present. Students should continue to learn fundamental concepts in civics, economics, and geography within the context of United States history. Political, economic, and social challenges facing the nation reunited after civil war will be examined chronologically as students develop an understanding of how the American experience shaped the world political and economic landscape.
The study of history must emphasize the intellectual skills required for responsible citizenship. Students practice these skills as they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by all of the standards for history and social science.
Skills
USII.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to
analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1877 to the present;
make connections between past and present;
sequence events in United States history from 1877 to the present;
interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;
evaluate and debate issues orally and in writing;
analyze and interpret maps that include major physical features;
use parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude to describe hemispheric location;
interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.
Geography
USII.2 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, and tables for
explaining how physical features and climate influenced the movement of people westward;
explaining relationships among natural resources, transportation, and industrial development after 1877;
locating the 50 states and the cities most significant to the historical development of the United States.
Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of Modern America: 1877 to the Early 1900s
USII.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by
identifying the reasons for westward expansion;
explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, and challenges arising from this expansion;
describing racial segregation, the rise of Jim Crow, and other constraints faced by African Americans in the post-Reconstruction South;
explaining the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and life on American farms;
describing the impact of the Progressive Movement on child labor, working conditions, the rise of organized labor, womens suffrage, and the temperance movement.
Turmoil and Change: 1890s to 1945
USII.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the changing role of the United States from the late nineteenth century through World WarI by
explaining the reasons for and results of the Spanish American War;
explaining the reasons for the United States involvement in World WarI and its leadership role at the conclusion of the war.
USII.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by
explaining how developments in transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life;
describing the social changes that took place, including prohibition, and the Great Migration north;
examining art, literature, and music from the 1920s and 1930s, emphasizing Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, and Georgia OKeeffe and including the Harlem Renaissance;
identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal.
USII.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World WarII by
identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor;
describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific;
describing the impact of World WarII on the homefront.
The United States since World WarII
USII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world between the end of World WarII and the present by
describing the rebuilding of Europe and Japan after World WarII, the emergence of the United States as a superpower, and the establishment of the United Nations;
describing the conversion from a wartime to a peacetime economy;
identifying the role of Americas military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Cuban missile crisis, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the rise of new challenges;
describing the changing patterns of society, including expanded educational and economic opportunities for military veterans, women, and minorities.
USII.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the key domestic issues during the second half of the twentieth century by
examining the Civil Rights Movement and the changing role of women;
describing the development of new technologies and their impact on American life.
Sixth Grade Standards of Learning
Sixth Grade Standards of Learning
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